Pilophyllum villosum (Blume) Schltr., Orchideen (1914) 131
Basionym: Chrysoglossum villosum
Terrestrial, sympodial herbs, 19-30 cm high excluding the inflorescence; all parts densely yellowish-brown hairy, the inside of the bracts and the sepals and all other flower parts glabrous. Roots 2-3 on each rhizome part between 2 pseudobulbs, to 20 cm long, 1.5-2 mm diam. Rhizome to 13 cm long, 5-6 mm diam. Rhizome scales only remnants seen. Pseudobulbs alternating 1-4 bearing a leaf and 1 bearing an inflorescence, 5-15 mm apart; leaf-bearing ones somewhat tapering to the top, somewhat quadrangular, 3.5-5 cm long, c. 5 mm diam.; inflorescence-bearing ones cylindrical, 5-10 mm long, c. 5 mm diam.; when dried all rather coarsely longitudinally wrinkled. Pseudobulb scales only remnants seen. Leaf 1 per pseudobulb. Petiole semi-orbicular, channelled, 2-20 by c. 3. Leaf blade oblong to ovate-oblong, 16-24 by 7.5-12 cm; top acuminate; base attenuate to obtuse; main nerves 5, below prominent and with slightly longer hairs than the blade itself; small nerves many. Raceme erect. 15-25 flowered. Scape 24-42 cm long, 2-3 mm diam.; internodes 3, lower one shortest, 2.3-10 cm long, higher ones 6.5-17.5 cm long; scales 20-30 mm long, 3-5 mm diam., top acuminate, nerves c. 13. Rachis to 9 cm long, c. 2 mm diam.; internodes 15-50 mm long. Bracts lanceolate, 16-25 by 4.5-8 mm; top acute to acuminate; nerves 3, alternating with 4 slightly lesser nerves; inner surface glabrous. Flowers not resupinate, rather widely spaced. Pedicel shallowly longitudinally grooved, 4-5 by 0.8-1 mm; ovary longitudinally grooved, 6-6.5 mm by 1-1.2 mm. Median sepal lanceolate, c. 14 by 3 mm; top acute to somewhat acuminate and somewhat recurved; nerves 3, midrib somewhat prominent outside; inner surface glabrous. Lateral sepals broadly inserted on the column-foot, equal in size and shape, oblong-lanceolate, falcate, 8.5-11 by 2.5-3 mm; top acuminate and somewhat recurved; nerves 1-3, midrib somewhat prominent outside; inner surface glabrous. Petals equal in size and shape, obovate-lanceolate, slightly falcate, 12-12.5 by c. 3 mm; top acuminate to cuspidate and somewhat recurved; nerves 3, midrib prominent outside. Lip 3-lobed, c. 8.5 mm long. Hypochilium c. 5.5 by 5.5 mm base semi-orbicular, with the lateral margins somewhat folded and sometimes indistinctly papillose; front part on either side with a patent, obliquely ligulate, somewhat falcate, in the middle slightly constricted, c. 3 by 1.5 mm big lateral lobe with an acute to acuminate top and an entire margin; lateral keels 2, starting 1-2 mm from the base and there 2-3 mm apart, fleshy, erect, c. 1 mm high, margin entire and somewhat undulating in the basal part, in the distal c. 3 mm converging, the margin double and not undulating, ending c. 1 mm from the top of the epichilium, c. 0.4 mm apart. Epichilium recurved, in outline spathulate, c. 3 by 2.5-3 mm, claw c. 1.5 by 1-2 mm; top truncate to emarginate, tip truncate to acuminate; margin entire; with a small, erect, fleshy, c. 0.5 by 1 mm big lobe with a rounded top between the distal part of the lateral keels. Column semi-orbicular in section, base ovate in section, slightly swollen at the acute, slightly serrate top, 8-10 by c. 1 mm; median on the front of the column with a fleshy keel; on the margin of the column laterally on either side with a narrow seam which is on the top half of the column drawn out into a distinct, fleshy, ligulate, slightly falcate, in the middle somewhat constricted, forwards projecting, c. 3 by 0.5 mm big stelidium with a rounded, somewhat crenate top, continuing upwards as a narrow seam which is laterally of the stigma drawn out into a small, semi-orbicular, c. 0.5 mm big lobe; column-foot not saccate, c. 2.5 mm long, c. 1 mm wide, 1-1.5 mm high, the front on either side with an about semi-orbicular, fleshy, c. 2 by 1 mm lateral, wing-like big keel which continues on the column, median with a large, semi-orbicular, fleshy, c. 1 by 1 mm big keel which continues on the column. Anther obovate, c. 1.5 by 1 mm; top truncate, with a triangular c. 0.2 mm long tip; base emarginate. Pollinia 2, conical, waxy, without appendages, 0.6-0.7 by 0.4-0.5 mm; top obtuse; base flat. Stigma about triangular, c. c. 0.8 by 0.8 mm; rostellum an inconspicuous, c. 0.2 by 0.8 mm big ridge. Fruit reflexed, ellipsoid; body 2.3-2.6 cm by 8-10 mm; column persistent. (After van der Burgh & de Vogel, 1997)
Colours: Hairs on the plant yellowish brown. Flowers orange or yellow, with lemon or cream coloured centre and (always?) with broad maroon veins in the apical part of the sepals and petals.
Habitat: Terrestrial in lower montane forest; 900 m.
Flowering time in the wild: May.
Distribution: Malesia (Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Moluccas, New Guinea, Philippines), Solomon Islands.
Distribution in New Guinea: Papua New Guinea. See map: 554-1M.JPG.
Cultivation: Intermediate growing terrestrial, requires shaded position.